ggplot2 is used for plotting, tidyr for manipulating data frames

```
library(ggplot2)
theme_set(theme_minimal())
library(tidyr)
library(gganimate)
library(MASS)
library(posterior)
library(rprojroot)
root<-has_file(".BDA_R_demos_root")$make_fix_file()
```

Parameters of a normal distribution used as a toy target distribution

```
y1 <- 0
y2 <- 0
r <- 0.8
Sigma <- diag(2)
Sigma[1, 2] <- r
Sigma[2, 1] <- r
```

Sample from the toy distribution to visualize 90% HPD interval with ggplotâ€™s stat_ellipse()

`dft <- data.frame(mvrnorm(100000, c(0, 0), Sigma))`

see BDA3 p.Â 85 for how to compute HPD for multivariate normal in 2d-case contour for 90% HPD is an ellipse, whose semimajor axes can be computed from the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix scaled by a value selected to get ellipse match the density at the edge of 90% HPD. Angle of the ellipse could be computed from the eigenvectors, but since the marginals are same we know that angle is pi/4 Starting value of the chain

```
t1 <- -2.5
t2 <- 2.5
```

Number of iterations.

`M <- 2*2500`

N.B. In this implementation one iteration updates only one parameter and one complete iteration updating both parameters takes two basic iterations. This implementation was used to make plotting of Gibbs samplerâ€™s zig-zagging. In plots You can implement this also by saving only the final state of complete iteration updating all parameters. Insert your own Gibbs sampling here

```
# Allocate memory for the sample
tt <- matrix(rep(0, 2*M), ncol = 2)
tt[1,] <- c(t1, t2) # Save starting point
# For demonstration load pre-computed values
# Replace this with your algorithm!
# tt is a M x 2 array, with M draws of both theta_1 and theta_2
load(root("demos_ch11","demo11_1.RData"))
```

The rest is for illustration Take the first 50 draws to illustrate how the sampler works

```
df100 <- data.frame(id=rep(1,100),
iter=1:100,
th1 = tt[1:100, 1],
th2 = tt[1:100, 2],
th1l = c(tt[1, 1], tt[1:(100-1), 1]),
th2l = c(tt[1, 2], tt[1:(100-1), 2]))
```

Take the first 1000 observations

```
S <- 1000
dfs <- data.frame(th1 = tt[1:S, 1], th2 = tt[1:S, 2])
```

Remove warm-up period of 50 first draws later

```
warm <- 50
# labels and frame indices for the plot
labs1 <- c('Draws', 'Steps of the sampler', '90% HPD')
ind1 <- (1:50)*2-1
df100s <- df100
df100s[ind1+1,3:4]=df100s[ind1,3:4]
p1 <- ggplot() +
geom_point(data = df100s,
aes(th1, th2, group=id, color ='1')) +
geom_segment(data = df100, aes(x = th1, xend = th1l, color = '2',
y = th2, yend = th2l)) +
stat_ellipse(data = dft, aes(x = X1, y = X2, color = '3'), level = 0.9) +
coord_cartesian(xlim = c(-4, 4), ylim = c(-4, 4)) +
labs(x = 'theta1', y = 'theta2') +
scale_color_manual(values = c('red', 'forestgreen','blue'), labels = labs1) +
guides(color = guide_legend(override.aes = list(
shape = c(16, NA, NA), linetype = c(0, 1, 1)))) +
theme(legend.position = 'bottom', legend.title = element_blank())
```

The following generates a gif animation of the steps of the sampler (might take 10 seconds).

```
anim <- animate(p1 +
transition_reveal(along=iter) +
shadow_trail(0.01))
```

Show the animation

`anim`

Show only the end result as a static figure

`p1`

Highlight warm-up period of the 30 first draws with purple

```
p1 + geom_point(data = df100[ind1[1:30],],
aes(th1, th2), color = 'green')
```