## Importance sampling with Normal distribution as a proposal for Bioassay model

ggplot2, grid, and gridExtra are used for plotting, tidyr for manipulating data frames

``````library(ggplot2)
theme_set(theme_minimal())
library(gridExtra)
library(grid)
library(tidyr)
library(MASS)
library(loo)``````

Bioassay data, (BDA3 page 86)

``````df1 <- data.frame(
x = c(-0.86, -0.30, -0.05, 0.73),
n = c(5, 5, 5, 5),
y = c(0, 1, 3, 5)
)``````

### Grid sampling for Bioassay model.

Compute the posterior density in a grid

• usually should be computed in logarithms!
• with alternative prior, check that range and spacing of A and B are sensible
``````A = seq(-1.5, 7, length.out = 100)
B = seq(-5, 35, length.out = 100)
# make vectors that contain all pairwise combinations of A and B
cA <- rep(A, each = length(B))
cB <- rep(B, length(A))``````

Make a helper function to calculate the log likelihood given a dataframe with x, y, and n and evaluation points a and b. For the likelihood see BDA3 p.Â 75

``````logl <- function(df, a, b)
df['y']*(a + b*df['x']) - df['n']*log1p(exp(a + b*df['x']))
# calculate likelihoods: apply logl function for each observation
# ie. each row of data frame of x, n and y
p <- apply(df1, 1, logl, cA, cB) %>%
# sum the log likelihoods of observations
# and exponentiate to get the joint likelihood
rowSums() %>% exp()``````

Sample from the grid (with replacement)

``````nsamp <- 1000
samp_indices <- sample(length(p), size = nsamp,
replace = T, prob = p/sum(p))
samp_A <- cA[samp_indices[1:nsamp]]
samp_B <- cB[samp_indices[1:nsamp]]
# add random jitter, see BDA3 p. 76
samp_A <- samp_A + runif(nsamp, (A[1] - A[2])/2, (A[2] - A[1])/2)
samp_B <- samp_B + runif(nsamp, (B[1] - B[2])/2, (B[2] - B[1])/2)``````

Compute LD50 for all draws

``samp_ld50 <- -samp_A/samp_B``

Create a plot of the posterior density

``````# limits for the plots
xl <- c(-2, 7)
yl <- c(-2, 35)
pos <- ggplot(data = data.frame(cA ,cB, p), aes(x = cA, y = cB)) +
geom_raster(aes(fill = p, alpha = p), interpolate = T) +
geom_contour(aes(z = p), colour = 'black', size = 0.2) +
coord_cartesian(xlim = xl, ylim = yl) +
labs(x = 'alpha', y = 'beta') +
scale_fill_gradient(low = 'yellow', high = 'red', guide = F) +
scale_alpha(range = c(0, 1), guide = F)
pos``````
``````## Warning: It is deprecated to specify `guide = FALSE` to remove a guide. Please use `guide = "none"` instead.
## It is deprecated to specify `guide = FALSE` to remove a guide. Please use `guide = "none"` instead.``````